To help tie it all together, many people staking out a career in the fields of information assurance, information security, network security and cybersecurity find it extremely he Consider terms such as: There are countless terms and concepts involving cybernetic frameworks, whereas there is very little regarding software. An Introduction to Cyber Security: A Beginner's Guide, 5 Compelling Reasons to Get a Cyber Security Certification, How to Build an Enterprise Cyber Security Framework, Why Cyber Security is Critical to Your Organization, National Institute of Standards and Technology, CEH (v10) - Certified Ethical Hacking Course, Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control (CRISC, Computer Hacking Forensic Investigator (CHFI), Big Data Hadoop Certification Training Course, AWS Solutions Architect Certification Training Course, Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) Certification Training, ITIL 4 Foundation Certification Training Course, Data Analytics Certification Training Course, Cloud Architect Certification Training Course, DevOps Engineer Certification Training Course, Develops a deep understanding of malicious software, Oversees unauthorized access/modification/disruption. These include denial of service attacks and other cyberattacks, and data breaches or data theft situations. With breaches increasing at a faster rate than ever, security experts have to advance their system at an equally rapid pace to keep up with the threats. Predominantly, APTs are not on the casual level of social engineering, but rather, targeted at the higher-ups of business and corporations. This has occurred with major corporations and billion-dollar companies that inevitably end up paying the ransom or fee because they simply want their data back and see no other solution. Although the scope of cyber security is sometimes too large for people to quantify or describe clearly, it is still the only recognized security by the Webster’s dictionary and the U.S. NIST, while software security is not even officially defined. https://www.upguard.com/blog/cyber-security-information-security Cyber security is in fact a legitimate and officially recognized term, which yes, might be very broad when compared to software security. But are responsible for a much more significant stake of overall security in an organization. Is it the other way around? A few of the main cyber threats encompassed above can be broken down into the main classification of: The most common styles of implanting ransomware are: The main types of social engineering threats are: Oftentimes, it is as simple as a misleading email that you open, and your computer’s data is immediately stolen. To understand them to their basic cores: Software Security– Is not even found in Merriam Webster’s Dictionary because it is not considered an officially recognized term. By examining the definitions, you will gather thatcyber security is related to a larger-scale network, sometimes referring to the entire cybernetic interweb or digital marketplace. Since cyber security is over software security, the risks will be larger in breadth and size. [14] https://shop.trendmicro-apac.com/products/maximum-security.asp However, it’s possible that you have no... Hi I'm Jas Singh. As such, application control forms part of the Essential Eight from the Strategies to Mitigate Cyber Security Incidents.. This document provides guidance on what application control is, what application control is not, and how to implement application control. APTs will target sectors that possess very encrypted data and information of high value, for example: Firstly, software security will be in reference to programs that are protected by a source that is either purchased from a vendor or developed in-house. The scariest aspect is that this is used to target governments and large corporations, but now everyone and anyone can fall victim to these scams and hacks. You can think of this as ‘anything with the word ‘cyber’ in its terminology, is related to a computer. They work together with their cyber counterparts on it but may take a broader role in prioritizing the most sensitive data first and making a plan for how to recover from a breach. With digital threats being a consistent aspect of your digital world, dangers are lurking around every corner and digital button. The main reason why APTs are difficult to pinpoint or catch is that they do not harm the network. First, let’s look at how both cyber security and information security are defined. Again, they work closely with their cyber colleagues to ensure that the most critical data is safe. [13] https://www.mcafee.com/en-us/antivirus/mcafee-total-protection.html Therefore, you need to check for any vulnerability and apply the... Cyber Security Vs Software Engineering Differences? Application security is the general practice of adding features or functionality to software to prevent a range of different threats. Another critical difference between the worlds of software security and cyber security are the domains over which they reign. Cookie Policy, link to Why Is Secure Coding Important? [7] https://usa.kaspersky.com/acq/products-services/lp-3up-v3-0?ksid=b3df351b-ec6e-41d1-b79a-5ad3e469e070&ksprof_id=35&ksaffcode=1286753&ksdevice=c&CAMPAIGN=GOO8497263&kschadid=358208742167&kschname=google&kpid=Google%7C606562477%7C28394208014%7C358208742167%7Caud-369346768503:kwd-34808170%7Cc&gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRhDu-y3qkKxN53jzQO8vPfEnzLtB4Sf3_Y155qcisz7S8UmFFhBV_4aAq61EALw_wcB Cyber security and computer security are popular topics, but is there a difference? Both roles protect data from being stolen, accessed, altered, or deleted. Compare Cyber Security vs Infocyte - … As its name implies, network security is all about securing assets and scanning traffic at the network level. – Makan Tayebi Jul 18 '16 at 14:49. add a comment | 2 Answers Active Oldest Votes. which I changed. Today, everything is digitized, and new security challenges and threats continuously emerge. A report by RiskBased Securityrevealed that a shocking 7.9 billion records have been exposed by data breaches in the first nine months of 2019 alone. In contrast, software security is a smaller piece of that puzzle, (such as an antivirus protection program being installed within that cyber security). It's also helpful to think of the difference between data and information at a more fundamental level. Drawing a clear distinction can be tough, though, given that simple geography can make an impact. ). The key takeaways are that software and cyber security are: Securing all things related to the cyber-realm takes a plethora of experts and programs to keep individuals and corporations safe from deception. However, if I had to focus on a few areas, I would invest substantially in creating good documentation, training, and dry runs.”. Terms & Conditions of Use This may sound similar to software security, but the main difference is that software is connected to a device, while cyber entails the entire internet or big data. In the past, attacks and threats were largely targeted at larger corporations. The terms Cyber Security and Information Security are often used interchangeably.As they both are responsible for security and protecting the computer system from threats and information breaches and often Cybersecurity and information security are so closely linked that they may seem synonymous and unfortunately, they are used synonymously.. [8] https://campaigns.f-secure.com/safe/pm-br/us-en/?gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRgWCnk9w0_47VJZzqiJpwj1TH7A3nM09MdeQSMViItmn4ZkkO0QkL4aAkebEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds [5] https://www.jpmorgan.com/country/US/EN/cib/treasurers-forum/namr/dos-and-donts [23] https://www.mimecast.com/ You may also see forms of end-user educations that help cyber security systems to recognize their weakest links or threats, as well as data loss prevention, which is involved in retrieving stolen data and information. Use 15 Cyber Security Threat Modeling steps. [18] https://www.absolute.com/ But the technology doesn’t cover the same threats and compliance issues that cybersecurity does. Use this guide to break down these topics, as well as gaining an understanding of their relation to information security, network security, and I.T. The domain of cyber security will protect everything within this ‘cyber realm,’ which may include: While the domain of software security will only protect the system or mechanism it is attached to. Essentially, there is much more scope and adaptability within the term ‘cyber,’ than there is in the term, ‘software.’. Cyber Security vs Network Security (Ultimate Guide) Before going into your main topic of interest – cyber security vs network security – let’s try to understand those two words first. Learn more about each of the software’s price, features, and helpful software reviews for South African business users. In other words, they are responsible for preventing breaches. Software is a small digital file that usually is uploaded to one computer or system at a time. IT security is thus considered a bit broader than cyber security. While there continues to be a lively online debate about whether cyber security and information security mean the same thing, it makes sense to look at cyber security as a form of information security. Of course, information security professionals are also concerned with data loss prevention. Cyber security professionals counter digital threats on computer networks using penetration testing, data security, vulnerability assessments, and other security methods. Cyber security can include but is not limited to all: The software is only one small aspect of its scope. If you are interested in getting into a career with focus and promise, two of the careers you might consider are cyber security and software engineering. I.T. Cybersecurity is a subset of data security that deals with security of information at transit and storage. The global cyber threat continues to evolve at a rapid pace, with a rising number of data breaches each year. In actual, information is processed data. Simplilearn is one of the world’s leading providers of online training for Digital Marketing, Cloud Computing, Project Management, Data Science, IT, Software Development, and many other emerging technologies. ML can not do Cyber Security. [22] https://www.centrify.com/ Try Simplilearn's Introduction to Cyber Security course for a foundational introduction to the cyber security landscape and the many ways you can keep online information safe and secure. Is information security a subset of cyber security? professionals in the industry for 20+ years are arguing with the opinion of basically, ‘I don’t love the term ‘cyber,’ but I don’t attempt to fight it anymore.’ With this air of surrender, most find peace in accepting that cyber security is most related to information security. If you have wondered how cyber security is different from computer security, it is actually quite straightforward. [12] https://buy-static.norton.com/norton/ps/bb/ushard/360/us_en_nort_nonbrand-ft30.html?om_sem_cid=hho_sem_sy:us:ggl:en:e:nb:kw0000008197:381033499130:c:google:1584688774:68255957508:aud-383108686250:kwd-11713941&nortoncountry=US&pgrid=68255957508&ptaid=aud-383108686250:kwd-11713941&gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRgSwpdJjdTSMv-EZOTIYIRsVWm0nzoSqAJziWIxXu1wDoX8GhMq0nsaArguEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds To summarize the difference in their versatility – software will fall under the domain of cyber security and be less versatile. This includes network components such as servers, wireless networks, and routers. If it assists you in understanding the broadness of cyber security, you can think of it as the umbrella under which software security lies. If we talk about data security it’s all … If you’ve established yourself as possessing this breed of vulnerability, you should hire a professional security expert to enhance your security system and avoid any future overhauls. Listening to your antivirus/malware software when it tells you that a website is dangerous and not to proceed by entering it. With cyber threats increasing with the rapid growth of our online presence, those with encrypted files and private information should be very wary about selecting the proper security for their needs. As mentioned above, cyber security is the practice of defending your electronic systems, networks, computers, mobile devices, programs and data from malicious digital attacks. [16] https://www.fireeye.com/ Trust would be lost with that organization, and their integrity would be compromised as well; hence, the name ‘integrity attack.’. PMP, PMI, PMBOK, CAPM, PgMP, PfMP, ACP, PBA, RMP, SP, and OPM3 are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. What about information technology? [15] https://www.cloudpassage.com/ The organization defines information security as the "protection of information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction to provide confidentiality, integrity, and availability." Essentially, cyber is related to anything large-scale within the world of data collection, integration, and security. This and other factors have helped keep the cyber security versus information security debate alive. I will clarify whatever was meant by the lecturer. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cybersecurity, https://www.cybintsolutions.com/cyber-security-facts-stats/, https://www.nbcnews.com/business/consumer/you-ve-been-breached-hackers-stole-nearly-half-billion-personal-n966496, https://www.jpmorgan.com/country/US/EN/cib/treasurers-forum/namr/dos-and-donts, https://www.malwarebytes.com/lp/sem/en/sem2.html?gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRgcyH92LCMyyK9os5nsUx78rEyBI1-_Ac0JFOgE0eHBIw7yN6saYO8aAmYbEALw_wcB, https://usa.kaspersky.com/acq/products-services/lp-3up-v3-0?ksid=b3df351b-ec6e-41d1-b79a-5ad3e469e070&ksprof_id=35&ksaffcode=1286753&ksdevice=c&CAMPAIGN=GOO8497263&kschadid=358208742167&kschname=google&kpid=Google%7C606562477%7C28394208014%7C358208742167%7Caud-369346768503:kwd-34808170%7Cc&gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRhDu-y3qkKxN53jzQO8vPfEnzLtB4Sf3_Y155qcisz7S8UmFFhBV_4aAq61EALw_wcB, https://campaigns.f-secure.com/safe/pm-br/us-en/?gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRgWCnk9w0_47VJZzqiJpwj1TH7A3nM09MdeQSMViItmn4ZkkO0QkL4aAkebEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds, https://www.avast.com/en-us/lp-ppc-hp-v3?ppc=a3&gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRh6gO50cXImG4PpFdAeFHHMfUMBKK4_9h1OyWN-qQt8E3hWDTdgcroaAgzEEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds&utm_expid=.mhrytDQQTGKWc6cnGSTndw.1&utm_referrer=, https://download.cnet.com/SpywareBlaster/3000-8022_4-10196637.html, https://buy-static.norton.com/norton/ps/bb/ushard/360/us_en_nort_nonbrand-ft30.html?om_sem_cid=hho_sem_sy:us:ggl:en:e:nb:kw0000008197:381033499130:c:google:1584688774:68255957508:aud-383108686250:kwd-11713941&nortoncountry=US&pgrid=68255957508&ptaid=aud-383108686250:kwd-11713941&gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRgSwpdJjdTSMv-EZOTIYIRsVWm0nzoSqAJziWIxXu1wDoX8GhMq0nsaArguEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds, https://www.mcafee.com/en-us/antivirus/mcafee-total-protection.html, https://shop.trendmicro-apac.com/products/maximum-security.asp, https://digitalguardian.com/blog/incident-response-plan, https://www.accenture.com/us-en?c=us_us_brand_10460943&n=psgs_brand_1218&&c=ad_usadfy17_10000001&n=psgs_Brand-%7c-US-%7c-Exact_accenture&gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRj6uRP2a_iUyDJE5L6YjAwR9WC__CXmYsxgB5aEOr6RRPixMMdo3XUaArwSEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/small-business.html?CCID=cc001547&OID=0&DTID=pseggl000015&POSITION=SEM&COUNTRY_SITE=us&CAMPAIGN=SB-01&CREATIVE=US_SEM_SMB_High-Volume-Persona-Terms_EM_B_DD-GGL_0_SmallBusiness_Targeting_ENG-Pure-Brand&REFERRING_SITE=Google&KEYWORD=cisco&KWID=p35417036806&gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRiG8LHSM8RUUkAgLoZ39FqurnPL18aRX3XXqTnBqt4dlsYDkEYj7fUaAulxEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds. [9] https://www.avast.com/en-us/lp-ppc-hp-v3?ppc=a3&gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRh6gO50cXImG4PpFdAeFHHMfUMBKK4_9h1OyWN-qQt8E3hWDTdgcroaAgzEEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds&utm_expid=.mhrytDQQTGKWc6cnGSTndw.1&utm_referrer= security. As with any out-sourcing decision, you need to understand what needs to stay in-house due to its strategic importance to the business and availability of competent suppliers and what can safely be out-sourced.”. For example, the term cyber security is used widely throughout the United States, but in other countries around the world, it could also be commonly called information security. Even though the terms “data” and “information” are often used interchangeably, there is a significant difference between the two. [1] https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cybersecurity Breaking down the core differences between these complicated notions, the first and most important difference is that – one exists within the field of the other. to legal to P.R. Many claim that ‘cyber’ is a generic term that evolved from pop-culture, and they consider this term to be: Since cyber security is in the dictionary while software security is not, and the NIST (U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology[2]) recognizes the entity of ‘cyber security framework,’ this settles much of that debate. Imagine a credit card company that had all of its clients’ data leaked. If a series of numbers was a customer's credit card number, for example, it is the responsibility of information security teams to ensure that they are compliant with government regulations. [24] https://www.transmitsecurity.com/, Why Is Secure Coding Important? Cyber security and information security are often thought of as the same thing. The most talented think like hackers and may have even been one in the past. If you want an epic career in 2025, the field of cyber security offers opportunities for a … Simply put, computer security means dealing with the security of a standalone computer’s software and hardware. 158,727 per hour, 2,645 per minute, and 44 every second of everyday reports Cyber security Ventures.”. However, cyber can mean nearly anything, which is why the concept is so confusingly broad to people. The main difference is the breadth of their focus. With so many terms floating around and new technologies being introduced virtually every day, it's no surprise that there's cyber security vs. information security debate. Conversely, cyber security is often accomplished through out-sourcing and is not done in-house due to the significant scope and scale of what it contains. Cyber Security vs. Information Security. These are all valid questions. Since cyber security is a larger entity that protects more digital architecture, and is, therefore, more versatile than software security. Application security controls are techniques to enhance the security of an application at the coding level, making it less vulnerable to threats. Cyber security jobs are some of the most desirable today. If you are someone that uses digital technology, it would be to your benefit to understand how these intricate subjects are more involved in our daily life than you may realize. Cyber security professionals, however, have a more narrow focus. My cyber expertise is concentrated on securing cloud systems like Amazon AWS, Google GCP, Azure, OpenShift (OCP) and Oracle (OKE). [11] https://www.safer-networking.org/ Both involve protecting cyberspace from hacks, which can include ransomware, spyware, malware, and other types of harmful software that can cause all kinds of havoc. Information security (also known as InfoSec) ensures that both physical and digital data is protected from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction. The information appearing on this website is provided for general information purposes only. Some of the largest risks that can occur in both software security and cyber security are: The risks for software security will look more like this: The risks for cyber security will look more like this: For software security, these risks are minimized by: For cyber security, these risks are minimized by: If you were in the case of a natural disaster, you could minimize risks by: The Digital Guardian[17] describes an incident response: “A response to a breach or cyber-attack involves many different stakeholders from I.T. By the end, you will have a clarified perfective on data-access and the resources we all have at our fingertips! [4] https://www.nbcnews.com/business/consumer/you-ve-been-breached-hackers-stole-nearly-half-billion-personal-n966496 While all information can be data, not all data is information. The report highlights the manufacturing procedure for products. Be sure to back up all of your data, keep your antivirus programs updated, and keep your data as private as possible to avoid unnecessary risks. Both software security and cyber security are vital facets of our current digital marketplace. In other words, the difference is in scope. Application security encompasses web application firewalls, database security, email server security, browser security, and mobile application security, Musich continued. [3] https://www.cybintsolutions.com/cyber-security-facts-stats/ Takes a mile-high view of the security landscape, Deals with the protection of data from any threat. Cybersecurity not only secures data, but it also secures the resources and the tec… Still, as stated in the alarming statistics above, this number is gradually shifting to attack small business owners and ordinary people (with 43% of all cyber-attacks being placed on small business owners). Cyber security professionals take an active role in helping to protect servers, endpoints, databases, and networks by finding holes and misconfigurations that create vulnerabilities. Information security differs from cybersecurity in that InfoSec aims to keep data in any form secure, whereas cybersecurity protects only digital data. This figure is more than double (112%) the number of records exposed in the same period in 2018. These will create protection against the basic software threat and attacks that we’ve covered above. Since software security and cyber security are two different entities, they have different teams and companies that are focused on their implementation. Software Security is an engineered software that protects a program from malicious attack or hacking. Privacy Policy To break this down a step further, the main attacks that you receive on your computer (for cyber or software security hacks) will fall into the three main categories of: This gets traded and sold on the dark web so that multiple sources can utilize your identity for their own personal gain. In the end, cyber security vs. information security debate can be the wrong way to approach two things that are so complementary to each other. will correct. Software security is predominantly focused on securing a single device or placing a security code within a computer network. [17] https://digitalguardian.com/blog/incident-response-plan Just getting started in the fields of cyber security and information security? [2] https://www.nist.gov/cyberframework Try courses in both! Cyber security is a growing technical field with ever-increasing importance. No warranty, whether express or implied is given in relation to such information. Software security is about ensuring applications carry on functioning securely even under malicious attack, without giving away and confidential secrets or information, whilst cyber security is protecting software from attack. Introduction. Understanding the key differences in security authentication vs. authorization is essential for providing top-notch user experiences for each. The Cyber Security in Healthcare report highlights subject like new technology used in the production for companies. Authentication and authorization both play important roles in online security systems. Since businesses aren’t the only ones being targeted anymore, different precautions are being taken in the installation of these security networks. Application security vs. software security: Summing it up Designing and coding an application securely is not the only way to secure an application. It is also essential to distinguish these attacks from their threats, which, of course, have their own distinct terminology attached. Computer Security vs. Cyber Security. K2 Cyber Security can help address these needs by providing application security that issues alerts based on severity and includes actionable alerts that provide complete visibility to the attacks and the … What that data represents and how sensitive it falls squarely under the purview of information security professionals. The most common types of software attacks: Keeping in mind that software attacks fall into the category of cyber-attacks, as a smaller niche underneath the larger umbrella of cyber security –. Essential Info. Your software code is the core of your application systems; this makes it more vulnerable to malicious malware and unauthorized users. To understand the differences between terms like cyber security and information security is important because many banking regulatory bodies like Reserve bank of India, Hong Kong Monetary Authority, Monetary Authority of Singapore, etc. The infrastructure on which an application is running, along with servers and network components, must be configured securely. Many of these controls deal with how the application responds to unexpected inputs that a cybercriminal might use to exploit a weakness. I specialise in Cyber Security and work as a Cyber Security Architect on a contract basis for organisations large and small in the UK. As stated by Cybint Solution’s 2019 piece on 15 Alarming Cyber security Facts & Stats[3]: “Since 2013, there are approximately 3,809,448 records stolen from breaches every day. Some argue that cyber security is not an authentic term, but rather, a slang that was created to encompass all of these digital complexities. have asked banks to have separate cyber security and IS security policies. Gartner identifies four main styles of AST: (1) Static AST (SAST) (2) Dynamic AST … Application security is the process of making apps more secure by finding, fixing, and enhancing the security of apps. [6] https://www.malwarebytes.com/lp/sem/en/sem2.html?gclid=Cj0KCQjws_r0BRCwARIsAMxfDRgcyH92LCMyyK9os5nsUx78rEyBI1-_Ac0JFOgE0eHBIw7yN6saYO8aAmYbEALw_wcB Different teams and companies that are focused on securing a single device or a! A small digital file that usually is uploaded to one computer or system at a pace... To such information data-access and the resources we all have at our fingertips of its clients ’ data.. Inputs that a cybercriminal might Use to exploit a weakness Oldest Votes uploaded to computer... 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Hi i 'm Jas Singh Designing and coding an application securely is not, and routers anything with the of... Been one in the code of data breaches each year, integration and! Apts are difficult to pinpoint or catch is that they do not the... Like an A.I your computer is constantly storing and communicating messages in the past cyber... ( non-human, feels more like an A.I encompasses web application firewalls database. Digitized, and how sensitive it falls squarely under the purview of information security discussion, too or security. A consistent aspect of its scope all have at our fingertips targeted at the coding level making! Was meant by the end, you need to check for any and... And grant access to your website or application be anything — a series of numbers, example. Are the domains over which they reign InfoSec aims to keep data in terminology. Computer ’ s price, features, and how sensitive it falls squarely under the domain cyber... Terms & Conditions of Use Privacy Policy Cookie Policy, link to why is secure coding important organization! Software ’ s price, features, and security and work as a security. Data to itself the industry is evolving faster than many can keep with! In fact a legitimate and officially recognized term, which, of course, have a more narrow.... Is supported by our participation in affiliate programs have separate cyber security is a growing technical field with importance. Cybersecurity protects only digital data consistent aspect of its clients ’ data leaked on... All while your data is being stolen, accessed, altered, or deleted protection against the basic software and... To help advance in your career compare cyber security jobs are some of the essential Eight from strategies... Your data is massive and needs to be protected work as a cyber security all... They confirm the identity of the software is a small digital file that usually is uploaded to computer... Antivirus/Malware software when it tells you that a cybercriminal might Use to exploit a weakness in order flourishing. Many threats to the security of students, staff, and how to implement application control one! Getting started in the installation of these security networks they do not the... And be less versatile and network components, must be configured securely professionals, however, cyber related... These attacks from their threats, which is why the concept is so broad. Number of records exposed in the UK technical field with ever-increasing importance as the same.. Focused on their implementation for South African business users also essential to distinguish attacks. The essential Eight from the strategies to Mitigate cyber security Expert master 's program to advance! Have different teams and companies that are currently flourishing in the code of data from any threat running along. Exploit a weakness wondered how cyber security deals with the word ‘ cyber ’ in its terminology, is to... Is uploaded to one computer or system at a more fundamental level clarify whatever was meant by end...