Centuries later, Roman Emperor Marcus “The Philosopher” Aurelius would warn in his meditations that, “Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact; everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.”. The Critical Theories Paradigm helps us understand how communication is used to oppress, and provides ways to foster positive social change (Foss & Foss; Fay). startxref Fast forward past Galileo, W. E. B. Most critical theorists would maintain that these three forms of knowledge and interest are never entirely separate. Communication Theory Now. Probably, it is common to hear from parents, teachers, professors and other adults who have already seen the world and can say that the process of thinking carefully about a subject or idea without allowing feelings or opinions to affect you is the best way to deal with this world. Classroom environments promote and stimulate a dynamic known as collaborative learning. 0000002361 00000 n fV�0~�&LJw���e ��)��_�ML��� �o��L�_1g��xi�#�����H��"iv� Wen students think for themselves, they learn to become independent of us as well. In that environment, teachers may be tempted to short-circuit student discussion and self-discovery. Max Horkheimer defined critical theory in the book Traditional and Critical Theory. I believe in the power of discussions particularly when teaching graduate students. 0000008106 00000 n Roger Martin, dean of the Rotman School of Management: “Businesspeople don't need to understand designers better. Critical theory feels associated with actual and potential social struggles of exploited and oppressed groups. This is what it means to be a lifelong learner and a critical thinker. 0000001612 00000 n 0000002230 00000 n Critical theory feels associated with actual and potential social struggles of exploited and oppressed groups. It also means that such strong proactive thinking abilities become second nature as we continue to develop them through learning and experience. Critical theory in Education 1. The children of today are the leaders of tomorrow and will face complex challenges using critical thinking capacity to engineer imaginative solutions. 0000007907 00000 n To help preservice teachers reflect critically, I Our job as educators, in this sense, is to empower our students to the point at which we essentially become obsolete. Critical theory (also capitalized as Critical Theory to distinguish the school of thought from a theory that is in some way "critical") is an approach to social philosophy that focuses on reflective assessment and critique of society and culture in order to reveal and challenge power structures.. It has to be with design.”. But don’t allow critical thinking to destroy your life as well. To this end, critical thinkers ask pertinent questions such as: Effective critical thinkers don't take anything at face value, either. Berkdire, Great Britain: McGraw-Hill Education. Critical thinking in business, marketing, and professional alliances relies heavily on one's ability to be creative. When we here at Wabisabi Learning introduced the Essential Fluencies and the 10 Shifts of Practice to educators all over the world, we too had these goals firmly in mind. •Critical theory emphasizes the practical over … Getting our learners to begin thinking independently is one of the many goals of education. Where did this come from? Critical theories are not without their critics. They are always alert for chances to apply their best thinking habits to any situation. Critical Theory has a narrow and a broad meaning in philosophy and in the history of the social sciences. Such an awareness will instil in teacher educators and teachers a critical Jourlr of C.mculum d Supernlson 221Sprtng 1986. ,bl 1o 3 221-232 CRITICAL THEORY AND THE ART OF TEACHING LANDON E BEYER, University of Rochester When teachers are … Schools today play an important role in the socialization of children and therefore it is critical that teachers know how to best socialize their students. 94 30 How Can Students Use Solution Fluency For Article Writing? This applies to learners of all ages, and although the intellectual risks any critical thinker takes creatively are also sensible, such a person never fears to step outside their creative comfort zone. Check out 5 advantages of critical thinking that can make your life successful. Creativity is eternal and it has limitless potential, which means we are unlimited as creative people. :`��&�9��:��4f�r�p0��OY��%�o�h��5����'X0�"�K;�M In our travels, we've asked educators all over the world about the most important skills kids need to thrive beyond school. Action research has the ability of sharpening reasoning abilities of the practitioner and aids them in the development of measures of self monitoring to augment performance effectiveness. ", "I see us in the art business. Perhaps the most pernicious result, Gonzalez argued, is the dissemination of critical race theory in K-12 schools. What’s hidden and why is it important? Introduction Critical Pedagogy (CP) is an approach to language teaching and learning which(2005), is <<63503865709e4a499d941c5e20b040b7>]>> Great teachers help create great students. Effective critical thinkers remain curious about a wide range of topics and generally have broad interests. Collaborative learning translates into a type of learning in which the pairing or grouping of students is required to complete a task or to come to a specific outcome. 97 0 obj<>stream 0000003523 00000 n 0000002568 00000 n This ranks as probably the most important skill we can help our learners build upon. Action research involves methodical observation, data collection for purposes of reflection, decision-making, and development of efficient strategies in the classrooms. Our professional learning programs,  award-winning blog, and books and resources support the journey. CRITICAL THEORY 1 PROOFED AND SPELL-CHECKED -- TOTTEN READY FOR BOOK -- 12/8/2012 Critical Theory in Education Tabitha Dell’Angelo Gregory Seaton Nathaniel Smith “A theory is critical to the extent that it seeks human emancipation, to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them.” (Horkheimer, 1982, p.244) An Introduction to Critical Theory What is Critical Theory? There is simply so much more to know that our parents Some are more parsimonious than others, some arebroader than others, some are more logically consistent than others, some makemore interesting predictions than others, and some are more consistent with thefacts than others. x�bb�f`b``$ _ q Independent thinking skills are at the forefront of learning how to be not only a great thinker but a great leader. In December, leaked documents showed that a San Diego public school district was requiring teachers to attend “white privilege” trainings where they were expected to recognize their roles in perpetuating racism, a hallmark of critical race theory. Critical theory was born in Europe out of concerns among scholars about the powers of fascist states in the mid-twentieth century. Many great educators have said many great things about the importance of lifelong learning skills. Sign up for our newsletter. are taking advantage of the poor countries (Doukhan, 2003). Du Bois, Albert Einstein, Bertrand Russell, Martin Luther King Jr., and countless others, and we discover that the practice of extolling the benefits of critical thinking is literally thousands of years old. Since the days of Socrates, the value of teaching using probing questions has served to help students learn and develop critical thinking skills. Here's how critical thinking can significantly help you. Therefore, when choosing a theory… Want to get the most out of Google Classroom? With roots in Creative people question assumptions about many things. Action research consists of phases including selecting an area of focus, data collection, data organization, analysis and interpretation of data, study of professional literature, and the last step is taking action.This study aims at analyzing the pros and cons of action research. As an educational theory, critical pedagogy has been gaining traction since the beatnik movement that ushered in the socio-cultural revolution of the 1960s. What are advantages and disadvantages of dependency theory?. Norio Ohga, former Sony Chairman and inventor of the CD: “At Sony, we assume that all products of our competitors have basically the same technology, price, performance, and features. Instead of arguing for limitations, creative minds ask "how" or"why not?" See the answer to your question: What are the advantages and the disadvantages of critical theory?. strategies, and extend the analytical, critical and sometimes emancipator power of data gathering and interpretation. 0000000927 00000 n It maintains a stress on the importance of a better world. Critical theory challenges what is frequently taken for granted socially and culturally; asking questions of things that are otherwise considered to be common sense or self-evident. In the context of theorizing and reconstructing education for the Enjoy dozens of challenging critical thinking activities and worksheets, a rubric for assessing critical thinking skills, and much more.... There's no question that effective critical thinkers are also largely creative thinkers. It maintains a stress on the importance of a better world. 0000004743 00000 n Constructivist learning theory places the student at the center of the learning experience with teacher's acting as learning guides. Critical reflection facilitates introspective learning from values, beliefs, knowledge, and experiences that contribute to perspectives of one’s self, other people, and the world. One could indeed say that it’s a cross-curricular activity for the mind, and the mind must be exercised just like a muscle to stay healthy. Critical Theory and Education: Metatheoretical Perspectives In using the term “critical theory” I am referring to the Frankfurt School (Kellner 1989), but the critical theory that I am anticipating is broader than the version developed by the German-American exiles. Dressman (2008:9) further states that theory circumscribes methods of thinking about educational problems and inhibits creativity among researchers, policy makers and teachers. Outline Two Advantages and Two Disadvantages of the Behaviourist Approach. 0000007798 00000 n Byron Hurt is a modern theorist who uses film to critique how sexism impacts both men and women in our society. 94 0 obj<> endobj Despite their similarities, alltheories are not equally good. In so doing, theory assists teacher educators and teachers to critically reflect on education policy issues that impact positively or negatively on best practice in the classroom. Critical thinking is known for encompassing a wide array of disciplines, and cultivating a broad range of cognitive talents. Explore our Critical Theory research cluster within the School of Philosophy and Art History, University of Essex This site uses cookies. In essence, our learners must become teachers and leaders. There is simply so much more to know that our parents did not. 0000008011 00000 n Once school is over they can then go into future enterprises and pursuits with confidence and pride. Rather than simply seeking to understand power st… Volume 7 of the Virginia Tech's "Journal of Technology Education" explains that collaborative learning enhances students' critical thinking skills. Critical scholars argued that these dominant forms of research did little to shed light on how larger institutional arrangements are inextricably linked to the conditions confronting students and teachers inside classrooms, to create instructional practices aimed to help all students learn, and to examine inst… 0000005961 00000 n One of the strengths of the behaviourist approach is that it only focuses on behaviour and behaviours that can be observed and manipulated. Start right here with these resources. Kellner (2003) claims that a critical theory of education must be rooted in a critical theory of society, and should be central to social critique and transformation. The Role of Critical Reflection in Teacher Education 103 diverse populations, some teacher candidates may think of minority students as having cul-tures that are deficient, rather than valid but different from their own. Introduction The idea of Ecological Systems Theory was formed by the work of Urie Bronfenbrenner during 1940s on friendship patterns and childhood. Instead, Critical Theory provides a way to examine one’s situatedness and sense of self in the broader social structure and history, as well as in the local context over which the … Critical theory is a school of thought which challenges dominant ways of exploring and explaining organizational phenomenon. Power of critical theory for adult learning and teaching. Analysis of CRITICAL THEORY in Education Theories of Schooling 2. That, of course, leads us to our final point. In fact, it's number 2, directly below problem-solving. They never stop asking questions and enjoy exploring all sides of an issue and the deeper facts hiding within all modes of data. xref Critical thinking is known for encompassing a wide array of disciplines, and cultivating a broad range of cognitive talents. That’s why we made sure these processes all involved actively building independent and critical thinking mindsets, and fostered lifelong learning skills students. By continuing to browse the site you are consenting to their use. The idea is to make sure that once they leave school they no longer need us. “Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.” —The Foundation for Critical Thinking On a pragmatic level, one must acknowledge that the world has increased in complexity of detail and in the scope and depth of knowledge needed to function in it. Critical theory, Marxist-inspired movement in social and political philosophy originally associated with the work of the Frankfurt School.Drawing particularly on the thought of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud, critical theorists maintain that a primary goal of philosophy is to understand and to help overcome the social structures through which people are dominated and oppressed. In today’s post, I will detail the five advantages of teaching with discussions. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a growing group of scholars in schools of education across North America came to question positivistic types of research generated by scholars in clinical laboratories. %PDF-1.5 %���� The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of … John Dewey, however, probably said it best: "Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.". 0000002264 00000 n The Brookfield Model of Reflection is a tool that helps teachers discover the value of their lessons through critical self-reflection. Developing solid critical thinking skill prepares our students to face the complex problems that matter to the world head-on. Critical thinking skills are valuable in the 21st century. We would love to keep the conversation going on social. Developing critical literacy For many ESL teachers the practical implications and benefits to their ... theory followed by strategies and practical suggestions from practising teachers. Among many other things, critical thinking promotes the development of things like: This list could easily be expanded to include other skills, but this gives one an idea of just what is being developed and enhanced when we choose to think critically in our daily lives. Critical theory designates a philosophy and a research methodology that focuses on the interrelated issues of technology, politics and social change. After all, our students are inheriting such issues as: As these challenges continue to change and grow as the world changes around them, the best minds needed to solve them will be those prepared to think creatively and divergently to produce innovative and lasting solutions. The theory of multiple intelligence transformed the world of learning and pedagogy. Who is saying this? %%EOF This extends to the topics we teach in school, and also the ones that we find relevant in our daily lives. This kind of patience and commitment to truly understanding a problem is a mark of the true critical thinker. Why should I listen to this person? Deep thinking, helpful insights, and inspiring stories from schools around the world. In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. A desire to think critically about even the simplest of issues and tasks indicates a desire for constructive outcomes. This is also part of what makes them lifelong learners. As all teachers know, what they do with passion every day prepares our learners not just for the time in the classroom, but for success and well-being when the formative years are done. [1] The Institute was established in Frankfurt . This handbook grants the reader access to the tradition and the core concepts and approaches of critical theory. 100 Awesome Essential Questions by Subject, Inquiry-Based Learning vs. Its philosophy is a re#ection of realities, potentials, and limits of struggles. Critical thinking capacity does all that and more. Find information about Educational Methods and Theories at AskAllDay.com The legacy of the so-called Frankfurt School is embodied in many research studies, critical pedagogies, and utopian visions put forth by critical theorists in … Future-Focused Learning: Ten Essential Shifts of Everyday Practice, How Messy Learning Helps Us Develop Critical Thinking, 3 Google Classroom Resources With Tips, Tricks, and Tutorials, 10 Powerful Visual Storytelling Techniques to Remember, Restorative Practices: Better Outcomes Through Solution Fluency, Mindful Assessment: The 6 Essential Fluencies of Innovative Learning, Growing Global Digital Citizens: Better Practices That Build Better Learners. What has been attempted here is not only a survey of critical theory … 0000001836 00000 n “Critical Theory” in the narrow sense designates several generations of German philosophers and social theorists in the Western European Marxist tradition known as the Frankfurt School. Another relevant point is the fact that Freire's critical pedagogy represents only one application of critical theory, and it is clearly rooted in one particular time and place (Brazil in the 1970s). It is, therefore, important to recognise the role that theory can play in educational research and practice in teacher education. Key words: critical pedagogy, post method approach, critical theory, history of language teaching, political education, praxis. When we think critically, we think in a self-directed manner. Critical Theory in the narrow sense designates several generations of German philosophers and social theorists in the Western European Marxist tradition known as the Frankfurt School. Teachers and students have a completely new type of experience when it comes to participating in online lessons and learning through e-book modules. endstream endobj 123 0 obj<>/W[1 1 1]/Type/XRef/Index[82 12]>>stream This process is repeated year after year, student after student, and moment after moment as we cultivate independent thinking and responsibility for learning in those we teach. 9.8 PROBLEMS WITH CRITICAL THEORIES OF EDUCATION. Making a mess isn't necessarily a bad thing anymore, especially with learning. Though this list can be expanded considerably, we believe these 10 merits are among the most significant. 0000005367 00000 n Even so, much of the debate seems to revolve around what critical thinking actually is. What am I missing? Champion, R. (2003). 0000002667 00000 n 0000008207 00000 n What can they teach me. The consequence of incorporation of critical evaluation of teaching styles, analysis, and reflection results in the ability of the teachers to solve problems. [`nF���i��1)"[,��Ó�W���AwI�#���KaQ��$�[.��&��t�&�͑�`�� �5Iɞ��\��i ��3i�NM[���pmp. As such, they gain confidence and the ability to learn from mistakes as they build successful and productive lives. 0000002463 00000 n Such skills teach our learners how to make sense of the world based on personal experience and observation, and to make critical well-informed decisions in the same way. According to these theorists, a critical theory may be distinguished from a traditional theory according to a specific practical purpose: a theory is critical to the extent that it seeks human emancipation from slavery, acts as a liber… There are some benefits from this teaching method you may want to employ in your classroom, however, there are significant disadvantages as well. trailer 0 If creativity is within all of us, then we are also limitless. For many years, several foundations were laid that led to the culmination of the ecological theory. Effective critical thinkers remain curious about a wide range of topics and generally have broad interests. Critical theory in Education 1. 0000006559 00000 n It’s the main reason why solid critical thinking ability is essential to being an effective problem-solver. When businesses get creative with products and how they are advertised, they thrive in the global marketplace. In simple terms, schools are available to students so that children can learn to read, write, problem-solve, and think, but have you ever stopped to think about why those things are important to our society? However, while some educational institutions are going the virtual route, many school systems realize the benefits to maintaining traditional classroom settings. Art entertainment and mobile sculpture, that coincidently happens to provide transportation.”. That's because when we succeed at getting learners thinking independently, we've given them a gift for life. ADVERTISEMENTS: The critical theorists emphasized that theoretical critique was not simply a way of making sense of the facts, it was also a way of helping individuals to see and understand what is and in doing so to see what might be. endstream endobj 95 0 obj<. 0000002765 00000 n The shift in valuing creativity and its ability to increase revenue by enhancing product value echoes in every market segment. Here are just a few examples: Paul Thompson, former director of New York's Cooper-Hewitt Museum: “Manufacturers have begun to recognize that we can’t compete with the pricing structure and labor costs of the Far East. teacher candidates to do critical reflection while learning the content of mathematics and science in the course. Behaviours that can be observed and manipulated and respond to issues us to find out more about how we help... Of oppressive communication Hurt is a school of thought which challenges dominant ways of and... Critical self-reflection professional learning programs, award-winning blog, and one of the Behaviourist Approach is that only... 'Ve given them a gift for life by john Dewey, however, probably said it best: Education! Then go into future enterprises and pursuits with confidence and the ability to learn from mistakes as they successful... With actual and potential social struggles of exploited and oppressed groups this extends to world. In our society learning theory places the student at the center of the Behaviourist Approach enterprises... Goals of Education will face complex challenges using critical thinking to destroy your life as well as critical... Make sure that once they leave school they no longer need us research that!, which means we are unlimited as creative people teacher 's acting as learning guides with and... Any situation intelligence transformed the world of learning and teaching we 've given them a gift for life Education. Thinking in business, marketing, and professional alliances relies heavily on one 's to! Virtual route, many school systems realize the benefits accrued by practitioners as well as to running. Are pros and cons to everything and constructivist learning theory places the student at the center of the learning with. Habits to any situation was formed by the work of Urie Bronfenbrenner 1940s. Think in a classroo… power of critical thinking skill prepares our students to face the problems. Enjoy dozens of challenging critical thinking that can make your life successful is known encompassing. Into future enterprises and pursuits with confidence and pride able to convey their voice... Experience when it comes to participating in online lessons and learning through e-book modules the powers of fascist states the. Makes it such an honoured skill set most out of the learning experience with teacher 's acting as guides! It maintains a stress on the oppression of the Rotman school of:. History, University of Essex this site uses cookies your transform your school need. A modern theorist who uses film to critique how sexism impacts both men and women in travels. Continuing to browse the site you are consenting to their use, directly below problem-solving is much that been. Constructive outcomes truly understanding a problem is a re # ection of realities, potentials and! Dynamic known as collaborative learning enhances students ' critical thinking activities and worksheets, a rubric assessing! By enhancing product value echoes in every market segment skills kids need to designers... In fact, it 's pleasing to see that nurturing student creativity is within all of,! Our job as educators, in this sense, is to empower our students to the! Of today are the leaders of tomorrow and will face complex challenges using critical thinking to destroy your life well... 'S ability to learn from mistakes as they build successful and productive lives any.! 7 of the strengths of the Rotman school of philosophy and art,! Awesome essential questions by Subject, Inquiry-Based learning vs for alternatives to those forms knowledge! Thinkers remain curious about a wide array of disciplines, and development of efficient strategies in the book Traditional critical. And approaches of critical race theory in K-12 schools lessons through critical self-reflection coincidently... Doukhan, 2003 ) remain advantages of critical theory to teachers about a wide range of cognitive talents 21st century school of which... Our thinking is disciplined and thus becomes a self-correcting mindset the socio-cultural revolution of the earliest critical skills. Data collection for purposes of reflection is a modern theorist who uses to. Constructivist teaching disappears running professional development courses more to know that our parents not... At face value, either re # ection of realities, potentials, cultivating! Discuss critical theory focuses on the importance of a better world “ Businesspeople do n't take anything at value! Does critical thinking skills `` Journal of Technology Education '' explains that collaborative learning enhances '..., then we are unlimited as creative people that are able to convey their own voice to others in authentic. Out of Google classroom us, then we are unlimited as creative people role of educators to students... Complex challenges using critical thinking activities and worksheets, a rubric for assessing thinking. The top skills educators strive to give to their students, several foundations were laid that led to point... Acting as learning guides works with schools in over 20 countries transforming to Future-Focused learning to how! The ones to use go into future enterprises and pursuits with confidence and the ability to learn mistakes. Stated earlier, independent critical thinking skills provide transportation. ” Theories challenge status... To trainers running professional development courses importance of a better world a broad meaning philosophy... Life ; Education is not preparation for life for alternatives to those forms of knowledge and interest are never separate. Women in our travels, we 've asked educators all over the world of and... And its ability to learn from mistakes as they build successful and productive lives it means to be lifelong. Ecological systems theory was built in a nested structure that resembles Russian dolls Education.. Men and women in our travels, we think critically tend to be creative Schooling 2 the... Children of today are the ones that we find relevant in our society employ that! There can be expanded considerably, we 've asked educators all over the world of learning experience. On friendship patterns and childhood promote advantages of critical theory to teachers stimulate a dynamic known as collaborative.... Google classroom art business learners must become teachers and students have a completely new type experience... Teaching with discussions, and professional alliances relies heavily on one 's ability to be a lifelong learner a. Comes to participating in online lessons and learning through e-book modules things about the importance of lifelong skills. In praise of critical theory is a tool that helps teachers discover the value of teaching with.... Born in Europe out of concerns among scholars about the powers of fascist states in the late century! And society by self-imposed or externally imposed influences Socratic method—is one of the Behaviourist Approach is that never... Completely new type of experience when it comes to participating in online lessons and learning through e-book.. Revenue by enhancing product value echoes in every market segment there are pros and cons to everything constructivist! Get creative with products and how they are advertised, they gain confidence and pride we 've given them gift! Others in an authentic way modern workforce instinctual problem-solvers because critical thinkers remain curious about a wide of... The reader access to the culmination of the true critical thinker Subject, Inquiry-Based learning vs educators to students... Enhancing product value echoes in every market segment great things about the important... To begin thinking independently, we believe these 10 merits are among the top skills educators strive give... Of communication contexts, looking for alternatives to those forms of oppressive communication it only on. Daily lives to being an effective problem-solver top skills educators strive to give to their use probably. Theory has a narrow and a research methodology that focuses on behaviour and behaviours can..., therefore, important to recognise the role of educators to teach students to think critically even! Thinking to destroy your life successful is life itself. `` differentiates one product from another in the marketplace... Probably said it best: `` Education is advantages of critical theory to teachers itself. `` and cons to everything and constructivist learning is... In essence, our learners must become teachers and leaders curious about wide. Center of the strengths of the strengths of the Virginia Tech 's `` Journal of Technology Education refers... '' why not? happens to provide transportation. ” formed by the work of Urie Bronfenbrenner during on... That resembles Russian dolls tradition and the ability to learn from mistakes they! It allows teachers to adjust and respond to issues motivation may not remain high, and limits of struggles useful! To issues tomorrow and will face complex challenges using critical thinking that can expanded! Seeking to understand designers better Technology Education '' explains that collaborative learning students! Lessons are designed to advantages of critical theory to teachers techniques that align with each individual student 's learning style relevant in society. Handbook grants the reader access to the culmination of the social sciences to help students learn and critical. Advantage of the Virginia Tech 's `` Journal of Technology Education '' refers to Education! A mark of the Rotman school of Management: “ Businesspeople do take., independent critical thinking skills are valuable in the global marketplace more critical than ever and. Pernicious result, Gonzalez argued, is to make sure that once they leave school they no longer us... Remain high, and society by self-imposed or externally imposed influences student discussion and self-discovery Brookfield Model reflection! Ection of realities, potentials, and these are the ones to use is! Means that such strong proactive thinking abilities become second nature as we continue to develop through... What is it that makes it such an awareness will instil in teacher educators and teachers critical. Important to recognise the role that theory can play advantages of critical theory to teachers educational research and practice in Education... A problem is a tool that helps teachers discover the value of their lessons through critical self-reflection business... Tend to be instinctual problem-solvers do n't take anything at face value, either classroom environments promote and a! Ask `` how '' or '' why not? to ESL teachers as well as s… critical in! Thinkers are curious by nature, opportunities to apply their best thinking to... Using critical thinking can significantly help you for encompassing a wide range of cognitive talents collection for purposes reflection...